Chapter 3 & 4 Study Guide Answers

Chapter 3 Study Guide Answers

  • B
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • A
  • C
  • The strength of the wind and length of time and distance over which the wind blows all influence the size of a wave
  • As a wave approaches the shore, its bottom begins to make contact with the sloping ocean floor. The friction that results slows down the wave and changes its shape.
  • A rip current forms when water trapped behind a sandbar rushes away from the shore through a narrow opening.
  • There are two high tides a day in most places because, as Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours, each place on Earth passes through a tidal bulge two times.
  • A spring tide has the largest difference between high and low tide. It occurs twice a month, when the sun, Earth, and moon are all aligned. A neap tide has the smallest difference between high and low tide.  It occurs when the sun, Earth, and moon for a right angle.
  • Salinity increases the density and lowers the freezing point of ocean water.
  • The Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection of winds and currents caused by Earth’s rotation. In the Northern Hemisphere, it causes currents to curve to the right.
  • Warm-water currents make the climate milder and wetter because the air acquires heat and moisture.
  • El Nino is an unusual climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean. It can have many effects, such as prevent9ing the upwelling of nutrients off the western coast of South America and causing shifts in weather patterns around the world.
  • Upwelling occurs when wind blows warm surface water away from the coast, allowing cold water to rise up to replace it. Upwelling brings tiny organisms, minerals, and nutrients from the deeper layers of water, and this attracts large numbers of fish.

 Chapter 4 Study Guide Answers

  • C
  • D
  • C
  • D
  • A
  • Diverge
  • Intertidal zone
  • True
  • True
  • True
  • Scientists use indirect methods to study the ocean floor because the darkness, coldness, and high pressure of very deep water pose problems for human survival.
  • Seafloor spreading is the process that produces the ocean floor. It is caused by magma moving up between diverging continental plates. As the magma cools and hardens, it adds new rock to the ocean floor.
  • A typical marine food web consists of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Many plankton and benthos make their own food through photosynthesis. These organisms usually begin the food chain.
  • Pounding waves, changes in salinity and temperature, and alternating periods of being underwater and exposed to air.
  • The rivers that flow into estuaries can carry pollutants such as pesticides, sewage, and industrial wastes.
  • An atoll is a ring-shaped coral reef surrounding a shallow lagoon. It begins as a fringing reef around an island and forms when the island sinks and the reef grows upward.
  • Hydrothermal vents occur in the deepest parts of the ocean far from sunlight, where food is scarce and organisms tend to be small, slow-moving and of limited variety. Around the vents, however, the number, size, and variety of organisms are unusually high.